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PAHs Testing Service

Central Experience Exchange Office (ZEK) AtAV Committee under German Safety Technology Certification Center (ZLS) passed resolution (See No. ZEK 01-08 Document posted on ZLS’ official website) on November 20th, 2007, requiring PAHs testing to be mandatorily incorporated into GS Mark certification as from April 1st, 2008 when all GS Mark certification bodies started testing PAHs items. 
PAHs Introduction
PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) are consisted of 2 to 7 benzene, linear, angular or grouped in chemical structure. They are mainly generated from incomplete combustion. Currently known, there are more than 100 kinds of PAHs, and EPA regulated PAHs are up to 16 kinds, as follows: 

■ Naphthalene


■ Acenaphthylene

■ Chrysene

■ Acenaphthene

■ Benzo(b)fluoranthene

■ Fluorene

■ Benzo(k)fluoranthene

■ Phenanthrene

■ Benzo(a)pyrene

■ Anthracene

■ Indeno(1,2,3-cd) pyrene

■ Fluoranthene

■ Dibenzo(a,h) anthracene

■ Pyrene

■ Benzo(g,h) perylene

Mandatory PAHs testing for German GS certification
Although pervious PAHs testing were voluntary, not part of GS certification, there are two recalls in Germany: first, substances found in the wires, chassis and handle in grinding machine; second, PAHs compounds found in non-slip plastic layer of hammer. After the establishment of new regulation, products that do not pass PAHs obtaining GS certificate, can not be sold in Germany. 

The following materials and components must undergo PAHs testing for GS certification:
Materials with strong rubber or naphthalene(mothball)odor;
All soft polymer materials(plastics and rubber materials)and black or fuscous hard polymer materials which may contact skin such as switch, keyboard, plug, handle and housing materials; 
Paint and anti-rot material(naphthalene and methylnaphthalene)which may increase the concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbon on material surface; 
For the internal materials without odor, material without contact to human may exempt PAHs testing. 

PAHs limitation criteria:
PAHs limit values for consumer goods(materials contacting food, materials which may be in mouth, toys and children care products)follows: 


Category Ⅰ

Category Ⅱ

CAS  Number

Materials contacting food or toys, may be put in mouth by children under three

Components constantly contacting skin, toys not covered by CategoryⅠwhich contact more than thirty seconds

Components which occasionally contact skin and? time of contact is less than 30 seconds or have no contact with skin


Not detected (<0.2) *



16 items of PAHs mg/kg (in total

Not detected (<0.2)*



If testing result is higher than limit value of Category Ⅰ but consistent with that of Category Ⅱ, testing needs to be conducted again to verify such result according to migration tests under DIN EN 1186 and § 64 LFBG 80.30-1. 

German GS certification introduction
Based on Germany products safety law, GS follows EU uniform EN series and Germany industrial standard DIN to carry out a series voluntary tests, recognized throughout Europe. Being certified by GS suggests certified by a third-party credible agency. Though GS certification is voluntary, it could protect the injured whenever there is an accident. So the GS certification could strength customers’ confidence.
Although GS is a Germany standard, it is recognized by a number of European countries. By satisfying GS and CE, a product would have a greater competence in Europe, by convey a strong message that security to customers is of top priority. 

Other regulations for limiting PAHs
Section 30 under German Food and Daily Consuming Products Law (Lebensmittel und Bedarfsgegenstandegesetz - LFGB) establishes permissible limit value for PAHs: 


Plastics,components constantly contacting skin in a continuously more than thirty seconds (such as handle, steering wheel etc)

Plastics,components occasionally contacting skin less than thirty seconds


1 mg/kg

20 mg/kg

16 items of PAHs (in total)

10 mg/kg

200 mg/kg

Testing limit is 0.1 mg/kg. If material is tested to be less than 0.1 mg/kg,it is deemed ND (not detected). (Quantitative limit for GS Mark is 0.2 mg/kg).

EU directive 2005/69/EC on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
European Parliament and EU members on November 16, 2005, signed in Strasbourg, France, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 2005/69/EC Directive which is the twenty-seventh revision of Directive 76/769/EEC, and in 2010 January 1 come into force. EU Directive 2005/69/EC on the market to add oil used in the manufacture of tires should be consistent with:
■ BaP content lower than 1 mg/kg
■ 8 kinds of PAHs (BaP, BeP, BaA, CHR, BbFA, BjFA, BkFA, DBAh) total concentration should be less than 10 mg/kg