machinery CE certification Notes
author：admin adddate：2011-07-05 from：SUNDE
With the continuous development of world trade, a growing number of WTO members to protect their own industries and markets by turning the traditional barriers to the use of Covert stronger anti-dumping, technical barriers to trade and trade barriers mainly in the form of green non-tariff trade barriers. As we all know, the EU is a major development of WTO rules, one of the EU's import of electromechanical products CE certification system is one of the means of technical barriers to trade, which provides for import of machinery and electronic products must meet certain safety and health standards, to pass conformity assessment procedures required to obtain the CE certificate of European unity, only the mechanical and electrical products with the CE mark to enter the EU market and sales and other commercial activities. These provisions seriously hampered my technology exports.
In this paper, No. 98/37 and 98/79 of the European Union based on the number of criteria, the machinery products have CE certificate should meet specific safety and health standards, summarized as follows:
First, the product design and manufacturing of safety and health standards
1 basic standards
1) Security Principles
- Mechanical and electrical products of the structure should ensure that commissioning, use and maintenance staff does not hurt.
- Manufacturers looking for the best solutions, design and production of products, should be considered completely eliminate hidden dangers; such as product manufacturing, there are still hidden dangers after, should develop appropriate measures to prevent harm occurring; such as security measures enacted, there are still other The threat to security, users should be brought to attention, and that can take the necessary training can be equipped with safety measures and protection facilities.
- In the design, manufacture products, and write instructions, the manufacturer should be considered in addition to the normal people use, but also estimated it possible for other uses of the device. Meanwhile, the product should be designed to ensure that users can only use its compliance, in order to avoid a dangerous place; or specifically in the product instructions that the use of non-compliance will have serious consequences.
- The design and manufacture of the product should bring the load to the operator, reducing fatigue and psychological burden to a minimum.
- Manufacturers in the design and manufacture of products, should be fully taken into account to the operating personnel with the necessary security items such as shoes, gloves, and bring the supplies the load.
- The net result of all the equipment should also be equipped with special devices or important parts, so the operator can safely equipment commissioning, maintenance and use of
2) the use of substances and articles
Manufacturing machinery and equipment used when the material and the use of mechanical equipment should not be applied to items related to the safety and health threat. Particularly the use of liquid substances should not be injected as a liquid, use, recycling or removal and bring security issues.
Such as general interior lighting operation of mechanical equipment can not meet the safety requirements needed, and may lead to safety hazards, machinery and equipment itself should be equipped with special equipment needed to operate lighting. Meanwhile, manufacturers should pay attention to the lighting device to prevent people with dizziness, dizziness. For internal installations of machinery and equipment to carry out regular inspection, commissioning or maintenance of the internal device should also be equipped with appropriate lighting.
4) use of the product design
- The user should ensure the safe use of
- Such as product and its components because of their weight, size and shape of the hand can not move, the equipment should be equipped with appropriate facilities for lifting gear can be put into use; or design needs to consider the lifting of leaving the device itself with the appropriate facilities, such as threaded holes; or the shape of the device easy to use general lifting gear.
- Such as product and its components can be moved back and forth by hand, its design shape should be easy to move; or with a guide and support devices such as handles.
- Some light products or components because of its shape or composition of materials in use may be dangerous, they should develop specific preventive measures.
2 control and command device
1) control of security and reliability
Control devices be designed and constructed to ensure that the device safe, reliable operation, the situation is not dangerous, to meet the full requirements of equipment operation, can withstand adverse external effects, when the system fails to ensure that no crisis situation.
2) Control Parts
- Control of parts of the logo should be clear, reasonable, and easily recognizable. The installation location should be as conducive to security staff, without taking into account, fast and clear operation; its design should be complete and its operation should produce the necessary control action does not lead to danger; the design of protective measures should be properly, such as a specific control action can lead to a dangerous, will ensure the implementation of protective measures to avoid hazards.
- Control of parts of the set, the body's direction of motion and resistance should be coordinated with the control. Operators must wear protective equipment such as shoes, gloves, etc. are added should be fully taken into account.
- Machinery and equipment should be equipped with safety devices such as dial display, the signal displays. Operators must be able to operate from its location on the display device can be seen, and confirmed that no one stay in the danger zone. If you can not do this, the control device should be with sound or light warning signal device, can advance warning before starting the machine, the relevant staff can quickly stop the machine starts.
Machine can only start operation command device through the destination can be achieved. No matter what the reason for the machine to stop running again after the start, or the machine running, such as speed, pressure and other fundamental change to be done, must be achieved through the installation instructions.
If the machinery and equipment have multiple start command device, and can hurt the operator, should be equipped with appropriate facilities, such as allowing only one instruction play a role in the choice of switching device, to prevent danger from occurring.
4) shut-off device
Each machine should be installed to stop operation of the command device. Each table should be equipped with the appropriate command device, in case of emergencies, to ensure that all moving parts or certain moving parts to stop running, to ensure the safety of the entire machine.
Once the machine is stopped or moving parts, the drive power supply should be interrupted.
5) Emergency shut-off device
A machine should be equipped with one or more of the emergency shut-off devices to prevent the crisis from happening. With the following exceptions:
- Emergency shut-off device can shorten the time required to properly shut down;
- When a crisis occurs, too late to take the necessary measures;
- Using a hand-held or hand machinery.
Emergency shut-off device shall ensure that:
- The operating parts clearly visible, easily accessible place in the line of sight and easy to operate.
- In the shortest possible time to stop a process with a dangerous sport.
If the staff issued an emergency shut-off device to stop operation instruction can not continue to operate the device, you should lock the device by issuing directives to ensure its continued effective until the lock release. Should ensure that the device is locked to avoid the run command does not work to stop the phenomenon; the lifting of the locking device can only be through the appropriate action to be carried out; lock removed, the machine can not continue to enter the running state, but should be restarted by re-entering the running condition.
6) The operation of the state selection switch
If the machine has run a variety of control procedures or methods, and each with different level of security, the machine must be equipped with running mode selection switch, each switch only applies to a control or operating mode.
If the machine is in a process, while the need to start another run state, should advance the development of the corresponding selector switch on the control requirements in respect of the following:
- Turn off the automatic control device
- Only in very strict security conditions, such as: lower speed, lower power, or take other precautions may be dangerous before they can start the operation of machine parts
- Such as the operation of the machine inside the machine's sensors will have a direct or indirect impact, and induce dangerous, the operation of the machine should be prohibited.
- From the selection switch should be able to directly manipulate the table a variety of moving parts to control.
7) Power supply failure
Power supply interruption, change or interruption of the recovery should not lead to a dangerous place, but should exclude the following situations occur:
- The machine suddenly start;
- Does not perform the operation stop command has been issued;
- Operation of the machine parts or machined parts or thrown off;
- Moving parts can not be automatically or manually shut down the operation;
- Protective equipment failure.
8) control circuit malfunction
Control circuit failure or accident, should not lead to dangerous situations, but should exclude the following situations occur:
- The machine suddenly start;
- No instructions have been issued to stop operation;
- Operation of the machine parts or machined parts or thrown off;
- Moving parts can not be automatically or manually shut down the operation;
- Protective equipment failure.
Operation and monitoring systems of man - machine dialogue software should follow the principle of ease of use design.
3 mechanical devices the danger of protective measures
Mechanical equipment and components and accessories design and manufacturing requirements should ensure they are operating conditions and under certain climatic conditions have considerable stability, does not occur suddenly overturned, the risk of falling or moving. If the machines constructed or installed for the reason can not guarantee the stability of the machine, you must use the appropriate fastening device, and in the instructions indicate.
2) the machine running the occurrence of fracture risk
Mechanical parts of the device and the connection between the machinery and equipment should be able to withstand the load during operation. They used materials must meet the requirements, have sufficient strength to resist, especially should have a strong anti-fatigue, anti-aging, anti-corrosion and anti-wear properties. Vendors should be listed in the instructions related to safety and maintenance inspection methods and intervals. It also must specify which parts are easy to wear and replacement criteria. If preventive measures have been developed, but there are still a dangerous place, such as wheel fracture fracture, then the relevant moving parts of the installation should be conducive to fracture when the fracture occurred off the block. Fluid flow through rigid or flexible pipe should be able to withstand the high pressure required by internal and external loads, the installation should be strong, can withstand any external shocks. Should develop appropriate measures to prevent a crisis situation when the fracture occurred, such as high-pressure liquid overflow. Such as the workpiece and the tool between the pickup and delivery process is automated, in order to avoid tool breakage injuries to personnel, shall meet the following conditions:
- Contact the tool and workpiece, the tool must have a normal working conditions.
- Whether the tool is in working order or in a stopped state, the workpiece to take action should also be sent to synchronize.
3) the risk of thrown objects off and
Should develop appropriate measures to prevent dangerous objects such as: machining parts, cutting tools, metal debris, broken pieces of garbage off or thrown.
4) the machine surface, edge and corner shapes of the dangers posed by
They do not affect the machine performance, the staff can not touch the machine parts with sharp edges, corners or rough surfaces to avoid injury.
5) Multi-functional machines
If the multi-function combination machine in need of many different processes, and each process between the workpiece to be removed by hand, as the staff does not hurt or hinder staff, should be separately switched on and off the machine's moving parts each.
6) the number of tool changes have transferred the risk of
If the machine is designed in different conditions (such as: speed, power supply on the size of) a variety of different processes, then these conditions should be safe, reliable choice and regulation.
7) the risk of moving parts have
Machine moving parts design, manufacture and installation to avoid dangerous place. Such as the danger persists, you should install protective devices to ensure that there is no risk of occurrence of the region led to the accident risk. Should develop the necessary precautions to prevent the moving parts are inadvertently locked. After the development of preventive measures such as locking phenomenon occurs, then the manufacturer should supply a special protective equipment, special tools and instructions for use, or marked directly on the machine prompts, so that users can no danger to unlock.
8) protective equipment selection
To prevent the risk of moving parts have guards should be used vary according to risk. Select the protective device should consider the following:
- Power Transmission moving parts: In order to prevent staff being run from the power transmission parts such as: disk drive, drive belts, gears, racks, power transmission shaft and other threats, you must use a fixed or activity of protective devices.
- Operation of moving parts in the process: In order to prevent the workers from being run from the processes of moving parts such as: cutting, pressure lever, roller, machined parts and other threats, you must use a fixed or movable guards or other protective devices such as remote control device with a grating or automatic identification devices. Such as the process requires the intervention of the operator, and operation of the moving parts have not established or only part of the safety facilities, the installation of fixed guards should be to ensure that staff were unable to reach process does not require the use of moving parts; or retrofit regulation of protective devices to limit the processes required to use the contact moving parts.
4 requirements for protective devices
1) General requirements
- Placement of protective devices must be strong, can not lead to other dangers;
- Can not handle a simple protective device, that can not play a protective role;
- Protective equipment in hazardous areas and should be maintained between a certain distance;
- Set protective devices should not affect the observation of machine operation;
- Protective equipment should be placed as far as possible ensure that their tools can be done without removing the installation and dismantling, or guarantee to carry out essential maintenance work.
2) the special requirements for protective devices
- Fixed guards: Fixed guards must be fixed at a certain position, the use of fasteners fixed, and only by using tools to remove it.
- Activities of protective devices: the device are two types. Type A protection device should be opened as much as possible with their machines connected together; or with a clutch, to ensure that staff were unable to start or shut down operation of the machine parts; B-type guards with machine control device as a single entity It's designed in the form shall ensure that:
- Staff have access to the operation of the machine parts, you can not start the component;
- Staff can not be touched during operation of machine parts to the parts;
- It can only be adjusted through the use of tools or keys to the destination for;
- In its own error or fault, the staff can not start a stopped state of the machine parts, or close operation of the machine parts; the same time, with its own collection of equipment to ensure an object is thrown when the security.
3) adjustable guards
Adjustable protective devices have limited the contact of moving parts, it
- Work should be based on the need for automatic or manual adjustment;
- May be no or a small amount of adjustment with the tool;
- Should minimize the risk of thrown objects
Second, special machinery and equipment
1 food processor
Food processing machines for the processing, food processing machinery such as: cooking, cooling, cleaning, packaging, storage, transportation and sales, design and manufacture should ensure that their food from bacteria infection and infection, and to achieve the following health conditions:
- Food contact material shall ensure that its use prior to cleaning;
- All planes must ensure smooth, smooth, not rugged, to prevent the growth of organic material;
- Connection should minimize protruding parts, moldings, and the number of hidden corners;
- All food contact surfaces must be easy to clean, disinfect or remove the internal surface of the diameter should be equal to allow for thorough cleaning;
- The liquid produced by the food and washing, disinfection and cleaning agents should be able to quickly discharge;
- Used between the base of the machine and its seals to prevent liquid infiltration of organic matter, especially biological, insects can not enter the machine to clean the place;
- The material needed to operate the machine, such as: lubricants, should not come into contact with food, so the design and manufacture of machinery should ensure that staff can check whether the required attention. Parts that need cleaning, whether it is easy or difficult to reach to touch, such as: pipes, food processing machine instructions should indicate the recommended washing, disinfection and cleaning agents and use the program.
2 hand-held or hand machinery
Hand-held or hand machinery should meet the following safety and health standards:
- According to the different types, used to ensure the stability of hand-held or hand machinery should have adequate contact surface, should also have a certain number of the appropriate size and location of the handle;
- If the risk-prone when the handle is released, the machine itself should be equipped with opening and closing of the command device, and the location of the installation instructions should be easy to use operator directly, without having to release the handle. However, if the device is technically feasible, or split the order, then there is the location of the installation requirements;
- Hand-held or manual mechanical design, manufacturing or equipment shall ensure that the handle release, the outsiders operation, risk will not occur. If technically can not do this, should develop appropriate protective measures to avoid dangerous occurrence;
- Hand-held or hand machinery should ensure that the design and manufacture of machinery and equipment in the processing of objects to get the full visual control.
Hand or machine instructions in the manual should contain the following from the mechanical vibrations of the note itself: the operator's arm to feel more than 2.5 m / s (squared) RMS acceleration, with reference to the use of the acceleration test principle or measurement method and measurement of available conditions.
3 wood and similar materials processing machine
Wood processing machines and similar materials, which have the same characteristics with the wood materials and processing methods, such as: cork, bone, hard rubber, hard plastic processing machinery, must meet the following basic safety standards:
- Processing machinery design, manufacturing and processing equipment should ensure that the placement of solid pieces, fastening. Such as the workpiece placed on the table, the hand control, should ensure a solid bench, but does not affect the processing of moving parts;
- Normal processing machinery, such as processing easy for a rebound and hurt the staff, the design and manufacture of processing machinery to prevent the workpiece should be able to rebound, so as not to cause harm
- Such as the processing machinery to stop running, and there is still risk exposure tool and processing machine with automatic stop device must be to ensure that the tool in a very short period of time is stopped;
- With tools such as the processing machinery is not fully automated equipment, the design and manufacture should prevent the occurrence of injuries; or circular cross-section of the cutting tool and limit its thickness, will remain a minimum of harm.
No. 98/37 and 98/79 according to EU guidelines, the EU's machinery exports to only meet the above standards and conformity assessment procedures through the provision of only after the qualified CE certificate, and CE marking, access to EU market for sale